21 note 2 nakamura states that the original version of Brahma sutra is likely very ancient and its inception coincides with the kalpa sutras period (1st-millennium bce). 24 Natalia isaeva states, "on the whole, scholars are rather unanimous, considering the most probable date for Brahmasutra sometime between the 2nd-century bce and the 2nd-century. 1 Structure edit The Brahma sūtras consist of 555 aphorisms or sūtras, in four chapters ( adhyāya with each chapter divided into four parts ( pāda ). 4 Each part is further subdivided into sections called Adhikaraņas with sutras. 4 Some scholars, such as Francis Clooney, call the Adhikaraņas as "case studies" with a defined hermeneutic process. 25 26 Sutras distribution in the Brahma-sutra 27 Section 1st Pada 2nd Pada 3rd Pada 4th Pada total Adhyaya adhyaya adhyaya adhyaya total Sutras: 555 Each Adhikaraņa of Brahma-sutra has varying numbers of sutras, and most sections of the text are structured to address the. 31 note 4 Each section (case study) in the text opens with the mukhya (chief, main) sutra that states the purpose of that section, and the various sections of the Brahma-sutras include vishaya-vakyas (cite the text sources and evidence they use).
14 The Brahma-sutra text is dated to centuries that german followed Buddha and Mahavira, because it mentions and critiques the ideas of Buddhism and jainism in Chapter. 15 The text's relative chronology is also based on the fact that Badarayana"s all major known orthodox Hindu schools of philosophy except nyaya. 15 16 The exact century of its composition or completion in final form is unknown, but scholars such as Lochtefeld suggest that the text was complete sometime between 500 to 200 bce, 7 17 while sarvepalli radhakrishnan and Dasgupta independently suggest the 2nd century bce. 1 13 paul deussen places it between 200 bce and 400. 1 Hermann Jacobi in early 20th century suggested that Madhyamaka buddhist concepts such as Sunyavada, acknowledged in the Brahma-sutras, may be a late invention, and suggests that both Sunyavada and Brahma-sutras may therefore have emerged between 200-450. 1 Daniel Ingalls disagreed with Jacobi chronology in his 1954 paper, critiquing Jacobi's assumptions and interpretation of sutras.2.28-32 in dating the entire document, and stating that "the Brahma-sutra could not have been composed later than the start of the common era". 18 19 According to a 2013 review by Andrew Nicholson, the Brahma sutras were composed over many centuries by multiple authors, and likely complete in the current form between 450 to 400 bce. 2 The existence of earlier versions of the Brahmasutras, and multiple authors predating Badarayana, is supported by textual evidence. 20 Some scholars, such as Sengaku mayeda, state Brahmasutra that has survived into the modern times may be the work of multiple authors but those who lived after Badarayana, and that these authors composed the currently surviving Brahmasutra starting about 300 bce through about 400-450.
Advaita vedanta sub-school, the theistic, vishishtadvaita and dvaita vedanta sub-schools, as well as others. 9 several commentaries on the Brahma-sutras are lost to history or yet to be found; of the surviving ones, the most well studied commentaries on the Brahmasutra include the bhashya by Adi Shankara, 3 Ramanuja, madhvacharya, bhaskara and many others. 10 It is also known as the vedanta sutra (Sanskrit: 3 deriving this name from Vedanta which literally means the "final aim of the vedas ". 11 Other names for Brahma sutra is Sariraka sutra, note 1 wherein Sariraka means "that which lives in the body ( Sarira or the self, soul 12 and Bhikshu-sutra, which literally means "Sutras for monks or mendicants". 8 Contents Author and chronology edit The Brahma sutras or Brahmasutra are attributed to badarayana. 13 In some texts, badarayana is also called vyasa, which literally means "one who arranges". 13 Bādarāyana was the guru (teacher) of jaimini, the latter credited with authoring Mimamsa sutras of the mimamsa school of Hindu philosophy. 13 This is likely, given that both Badarayana and jaimini" each other as they analyze each other's theories, badarayana emphasizing knowledge while jaimini emphasizes rituals, sometimes agreeing with each other, sometimes disagreeing, often anti-thesis of the other.
Essays and aphorisms - internet Archive
The, brahma sūtras sanskrit : ) is a sanskrit text, attributed. Badarayana, estimated to have been completed in its surviving form some time between 450 bce and 200. 1 2, the year text systematizes and summarizes the philosophical and spiritual ideas in the. 3, it is one of the foundational texts of the. Vedānta school of, hindu philosophy. 3, the Brahma sutras consists of 555 aphoristic verses ( sutras ) in four chapters.
4, these verses are primarily about the nature of human existence and universe, and ideas about the metaphysical concept of Ultimate reality called. 3 5, the first chapter discusses the metaphysics of Absolute reality, the second chapter reviews and addresses the objections raised by the ideas of competing orthodox schools of Hindu philosophies as well as heterodox schools such. Buddhism and, jainism, 6 the third chapter discusses epistemology and path to gaining spiritually liberating knowledge, and the last chapter states why such a knowledge is an important human need. 7, the Brahmasutra is one of three most important texts in Vedanta along with the. Principal Upanishads and the, bhagavad Gita. 8 9, it has been influential to various schools of Indian philosophies, but interpreted differently by the non-dualistic.
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Essays, and, aphorisms - rvices
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