In the end, it essay seems that Smallwood's writing, while it does serve its purpose, also seems jumbled and off at times. Still, a recommended read.more).
They were able to create a new Africa in their diaspora, one where individual tribal traditions coalesced into one melting pot of African Cultures. To many, the term middle passage was no such thing. This implied that there was something more beyond their eventual confinement and slave status in the Americas. To many Africans, then, the middle passage, as Smallwood states, was an antithesis. This was the final leg in a journey that severed ties between them, the slave, and everything they had known. It is in this way that Smallwood accomplishes her goal. She doesnt talk about what we should know. She makes the connection, through narratives and diaries, through accounts and ledgers, that the middle passage was nothing more than an exchange mothers for commodities on the three legged Columbian Exchange for Slavers. For Slaves, however, the middle passage, inevitably, was the end.
Her final two chapters finally begin to explore the overseas journey. Here, she draws on Oladuah Equianos narrative to illustrate the harsh conditions under which slaves, here simply commodities, traveled. It was poignant to see slavery in a new light. To the traders, the slaves were not people, but commodities. They only became chattel once they reached America, and were sold. Smallwoods last chapter shows how slavery led not only to the creation of a diaspora, but also, in a small sense, community. Though the slaves came from many different regions, in this new role, social death wasnt an end.
Saltwater slavery by Smallwood
Saltwater Slavery: a middle passage from Africa to American diaspora, is a book that sought to explore and give new insight into the horrors of slavery. Smallwood sought to give a new history of American Slavery starting in Africa, and detailing how the horrors of crossing the Atlantic, the commodification of slaves, and the captivity led to the creation of a diaspora. She does this not through numbers and statistics, but through documents such as ledgers, diaries, and narratives to give a per Saltwater Slavery: a middle passage from Africa to American diaspora, is a book that sought to explore and give new insight into the horrors. She does this not through numbers and statistics, but through documents such as ledgers, diaries, and narratives to give a personal, social view of the middle passage. Her book flows nicely, starting with the gold coast, so named at first due to the gold ore that was salvaged. However, Smallwood notes that, due to the sudden demand for slaves coming from the American Colonies, the gold coast slowly transformed from a commercial hub to a slave-trading region. In subsequent chapters, Smallwood shows how, in the process of transforming slaves into a commodity (and the loss of personhood the need for profit outweighed all else.
This resulted in ships that were crowded with upwards of 450 slaves for transport across the Atlantic. Smallwood uses these numbers to show the concept of social death, which resulted in being removed from a culture to which one could never return, that she put forward. This particular point reminded me of simple remembrances in Mexican culture. If no one remembered you, you simply didnt exist. In doing so, she gives us a parallel history to the colonies by showing us where the journey of slaves began in Africa; particularly along the gold coast, which consists foils of present day ghana, benin, and sierra leone.
26 27 The Anti-Slavery society estimated that there were 2,000,000 slaves in the early 1930s Ethiopia, out of an estimated population of between 8 and 16 million. 28 Slavery continued in Ethiopia until the brief Second Italo-Abyssinian War in October 1935, when it was abolished by order of the Italian occupying forces. 29 In response to pressure by western Allies of World War ii ethiopia officially abolished slavery and serfdom after regaining its independence in 1942. On ile selassie issued a proclamation outlawing slavery. 30 31 When British rule was first imposed on the sokoto caliphate and the surrounding areas in northern Nigeria at the turn of the 20th century, approximately 2 million.5 million people there were slaves. 32 Slavery in northern Nigeria was finally outlawed in 1936.
33 Elikia m'bokolo, april 1998, le monde diplomatique. quot;: "The African continent was bled of its human resources via all possible routes. Across the sahara, through the red sea, from the Indian Ocean ports and across the Atlantic. At least ten centuries of slavery for the benefit of the muslim countries (from the ninth to the nineteenth)." he continues: "Four million slaves exported via the red sea, another four million through the Swahili ports of the Indian Ocean, perhaps as many as nine. David livingstone wrote of the slave trades: to overdraw its evils is a simple impossibility. We passed a slave woman shot or stabbed through the body and lying on the path. Onlookers said an Arab who passed early that morning had done it in anger at losing the price he had given for her, because she was unable to walk any longer.
Saltwater Slavery : a middle passage from Africa
In the resume 19th century at least half the population was enslaved among the duala of the cameroon, the Igbo and other peoples of the lower Niger, the kongo, and the kasanje kingdom and Chokwe of Angola. Among the Ashanti and Yoruba a third of the population consisted of slaves. The population of the kanem was about a third slave. It was perhaps 40 in Bornu (13961893). Between 17 from one- to two-thirds of the entire population of the fulani jihad states consisted of slaves. The population of the sokoto caliphate formed by hausas in northern Nigeria and Cameroon was half-slave in the 19th century. It is estimated that up to 90 of the population of Arab - swahili zanzibar was enslaved. Roughly half the population of Madagascar was enslaved. 22 23 page needed 24 25 self-published source?
19 main articles: African slave trade, arab slave trade, and History of slavery in the muslim world Further information: Slave coast of West Africa, swahili coast, and Barbary coast French historian Fernand Braudel noted that slavery was endemic in Africa and part of the structure. "Slavery came in different guises in different societies: there were court slaves, slaves incorporated into princely armies, domestic and household slaves, slaves working on the land, in industry, as couriers and intermediaries, even as traders". 20 During the 16th century, europe began to essay outpace the Arab world in the export traffic, with its slave traffic from Africa to the Americas. The dutch imported slaves from Asia into their colony in south Africa. In 1807 Britain, which held extensive, although mainly coastal, colonial territories on the African continent (including southern Africa made the international slave trade illegal, as did the United States in 1808. 21 13th-century Africa map of the main trade routes and states, kingdoms and empires In Senegambia, between 13, close to one-third of the population was enslaved. In early Islamic states of the western Sudan, including Ghana (7501076 mali (12351645 segou (17121861 and Songhai (12751591 about a third of the population was enslaved. In sierra leone in the 19th century about half of the population consisted of slaves.
in 21st-century Islamism continues, and women and children have been abducted and enslaved (often as sex slaves ) by Islamist quasi-states such as the Islamic State of Iraq and the levant and boko haram. 13 14 Contents Origins edit main article: Slavery in antiquity. 1480 bc, fugitive slave treaty between Idrimi of Alakakh (now Tell Atchana ) and Pillia of kizzuwatna (now Cilicia). Evidence of slavery predates written records, and has existed in many cultures. 15 However, slavery is rare among hunter-gatherer populations. 16 Mass slavery requires economic surpluses and a high population density to be viable. Due to these factors, the practice of slavery would have only proliferated after the invention of agriculture during the neolithic revolution, about 11,000 years ago. 17 Slavery was known in civilizations as old as Sumer, as well as in almost every other ancient civilization, including Ancient Egypt, ancient China, the akkadian Empire, assyria, babylonia, ancient Iran, ancient Greece, india, the roman Empire, the Arab Islamic Caliphate and Sultanate, nubia and. 18 Such institutions were a mixture of debt-slavery, punishment for crime, the enslavement of prisoners of war, child abandonment, and the birth of slave children to slaves.
Slavery became common within much of Europe during the. Dark Ages and it continued into the, middle Ages. The, dutch, french, spanish, portuguese, british, arabs and a number of West African kingdoms played a prominent role in the Atlantic slave trade, especially after 1600. Forsythe 5 wrote: "The fact remained that at the beginning of the nineteenth century an estimated three-quarters of all people alive were trapped in bondage against their will either in some form of slavery or serfdom." 6 Denmark-norway was the first European german country to ban. Although slavery is no longer legal anywhere in the world (with the exception of penal labour 7 human trafficking remains an international problem and an estimated 25-40 million people are enslaved today, the majority in Asia. 8 During the second Sudanese civil War people were taken into slavery. 9 evidence emerged in the late 1990s of systematic child slavery and trafficking on cacao plantations in West Africa; see the chocolate and slavery article. 10 Slavery continues into the 21st-century.
Saltwater Slavery — stephanie
The history of slavery spans many cultures, nationalities, and religions from ancient times to the present day. However the social, economic, and legal positions of slaves were vastly different in different systems of slavery in different times and places. 1, slavery can be traced back to the earliest records, such as the. Mesopotamian, code of Hammurabi (c. 1860 bc which refers to it as an established institution, and it was common among ancient people. 2, slavery is rare among hunter-gatherer populations, because it is developed as a system of social stratification. 3 4, slavery was known in the very first civilizations such as, sumer in, mesopotamia which dates back as far as 3500 bc, as well as in almost every other civilization. ByzantineOttoman wars and the, ottoman wars in Europe resulted in the taking of large numbers. Christian slaves, especially analysis amongst the, slavic peoples of, central and Eastern Europe.